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Position:List of Measures»Stationary Sources-Agricultural and forestry»Emission Control for Livestock Wastes

Stationary & Fugitive Sources
Emission Control for Livestock Wastes
Source Category Pollutants Related Authorities Cost Summary
Stationary Sources-Agricultural and forestry Reactive Organic Gas (ROG) Local Government, Department of Agriculture TBD

This control measure would reduce organic emissions from livestock waste by requiring best management practices.


Reduce emissions of organic compounds from livestock waste.


The research has shown that organic compounds emitted from the feed may constitute over 50% of the total organic emissions from animal facilities. Simple techniques such as keeping silage covered and reducing wet feed can potentially reduce organic emissions. Additionally, feeding the animals food that will result in more complete digestion can reduce organic emissions directly from the animal and the waste.For large confined animal facilities (at least 1000 milk‐producing cows for dairies) should operate and implement control measures to reduce emissions of POC (Precursor Organic Compound), NOx, and PM10 from the facility. As the 2005 emission inventory estimates emissions from dairy cattle are 13.75 tons per day of TOG and 1.1 tons per day of ROG in USA. Adoption of best management practices is estimated to reduce TOG emissions by 25% or 3.4 tons per day.

Expected Results

Emission Reduction

Pollutants(tons per day)


The emissionreductions potential for this measure equals 3.4 tons per day TOG, or 0.3 tons perday ROG and 3.1 tpd of methane. Based on its global warming potential (GWP)factor of 21, the 3.1 tpd of methane emissions are equivalent to 65 tpd of CO2‐e.

Exposure Reduction



The adoption of bestmanagement practices may also reduce emissions of ammonia, a secondaryprecursor to the formation of particulate matter and methane, a greenhouse gas.

Emission ReductionTrade‐offs:


Related Authorities

Local Government, Department of Agriculture

Implementation Action

The related authorities should review the best management practices that help to reduce the emissions from the livestock and waste and require the animal facilities to implement these control measures. The practices includes:Prepare feed according to requirements from Department of AgricultureStore grain in a weatherproof storage structure from October through MayRemove feed from the area where animals eat at least once every 14 daysCover the horizontal surface of silage piles, except for the area where feed is being removed from the silage pile.Flush or hose milking parlor immediately prior to, immediately after, or during each milkingFlush freestalls more frequently than the milking scheduleUse non‐manure‐based bedding for at least 90% of the bedding material, by weight, for freestalls (e.g., rubber mats, almond hulls, sand, or waterbeds)Inspect water pipes and troughs and repair leaks at least once every 14 daysClean concrete areas such that the depth of animal waste does not exceed twelve inches at any point or time, except in‐corral moundingManage corrals such that the animal waste depth in the corral does not exceed twelve inches at any point or time, except for in‐corral moundingKnock down fence line animal waste build‐up prior to it exceeding a height of twelve inches at any time.Scrape or flush feed aprons in corrals at least once every seven daysMaintain corrals to ensure drainage and to prevent water from standing more than 48 hoursCover dry animal waste piles outside of the corrals with a waterproof covering from October through May, except for times, not to exceed 24 hours, when wind removes the coveringRemove solids from the waste system with a solid separator system, prior to the waste entering the lagoonManage the liquid animal waste so it stands in the fields no more than 24 hours, if it is applied on land as fertilizerDo not apply any solid animal waste that has a moisture content of more than 50% as fertilizer on fields.



Monitoring Mechanisms

District Compliance and Enforcement Staff will monitor adoption of the best management practices through facility inspections. The success of this control measure in terms of emissions reductions would be difficult to monitor, as the majority of facilities would remain exempt from permitting due to their small size. Furthermore, the ongoing variability in the determination of emission factors for livestock may complicate efforts to quantify the reduction of emissions from adoption of these management practices.


1.     Mitoehner, F. et al, Volatile Fatty Acids, Amine,Phenol, and Alcohol Emissions from Dairy Cows and Fresh Waste. Final Report,dated 5/31/2006.

2.     San Joaquin Rule 4570: Confined AnimalFacilities, Final Draft Staff Report, dated 6/15/2006

3.     Schmidt, C.E., and Card, T.R., Dairy AirEmissions, Summary of Dairy Emission Estimation Procedures, dated May 2006.

4.     South Coast Rule 1127: Emission Reductions from LivestockWaste, Final Staff Report, dated 8/6/2004