Beijing, 2016 February 23: As air pollution prevention and control becomes one of today’s largest environmental challenges, the Beijing – Tianjin – Hebei region (JJJ Region) is considered one of the most important regions to improve air quality. Clean Air Alliance China (CAAC) published “How will Beijing – Tianjin – Hebei Achieve Air Quality Targets? A Study on Achieving PM2.5 Targets in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based on Scenario Analysis.”
This report also follows another report by the Clean Air Alliance of China titled, “Can Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Achieve Their PM2.5 Targets by 2017?”, addressing challenges in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region.This Report is the industry’s first quantitative report to analyze air pollution in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region. Based on each region’s industrial structure, pollutant clearing list and air quality management model, the report outlines possible scenarios for to achieve the national PM2.5 target, which is currently set at 35 microgram per cubic square meter. The Report reveals that in order to achieve the national air quality target, four targets areas must undergo significant changes in terms of industrial structure, clean energy development, end of pipe treatment, and transportation management. The report outlines 11 critical measures for the four areas.
1.Large-scale changes in industrial structure
a.Jing-Jin-Ji Region will aim transition to a service-based industry, and the amount of energy-intensive industries will either remain constant or decrease. Heavy industries should experience significant changes by 2030.
b.In Beijing, industries that do not environmentally friendly, low-energy and serve the city will no longer exist. Tianjin has already planned to phase out some of their heavy industries, and industries that are “high-polluting, energy-intensive” industries should be limited. Hebei will continue to develop its industries, but with extra caution to control “high-polluting, energy-intensive” industries.
2.Greening local energy structures
a.Compared to 2012 levels, by 2030 coal’s contribution to Jing-Jin-Ji Region’s primary energy consumption will decrease from 73.1% to 30.7%. Natural gas’s contribution will increase from 7.8% to 28.6%, and imported electricity will increase from 4.4% to 15.3%. Additionally, pollution from bulk coal for civil use should be fully under control by replacing coal with natural gas, renewable energy or clean coal. Meanwhile, coal with sulfur content higher than 0.6% will be completely banned.
3.End-of-pipe improvement methods
a.All the coal-fired power stations in the JJJ Region should achieve ultra-low emissions.
b.Iron and steel enterprises in Hebei and Tianjin should implement thorough upgrades such as installing dust collectors, controlling unorganized emissions, and install desulfurization equipment on all sintering machines to ensure desulfurization efficiencies of at least 85%.
c.Industrial boilers in Hebei and Tianjin should be upgraded with bag dust collectors or electrostatic-fabric integrated dust collectors. All enterprises in the cement industry should use low NOx combustion technologies and terminal denitration treatments.
d.The JJJ Region should eliminate medium, small and obsolete boilers and upgrade remaining large boilers to improve desulfurization, denitration and dust removal processes.
e.The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in coking, external coating, package printing and other key industries should be no less than 70%.
f.The management and control of ammonia emissions should be enhanced. By 2030, Tianjin and Hebei’s livestock industries should be 70% more intensive, fertilizer consumption should be controlled, and new fertilizer technologies should be widely promoted.
4.Transportation pollution control
a.By 2030, vehicle-use gasoline and diesel oil upgrades should be completed, and all in-use vehicles should reach the "national VI" standards.
b.By 2030, the number of registered vehicles in Beijing should be capped at 6.76 million, and the public transportation ratio in urban areas should be over 41%. Additionally, the energy-saving cars, such as hybrids and electric vehicles, should account for more than 50% of the region's passenger car fleet, and electric vehicles more than 40%.
c.By 2030, the number of registered vehicles in Tianjin should be capped at 4.49 million, and the public transportation ratio in urban areas should be over 41%. Additionally, energy-saving cars should account for more than 50%, and electric vehicles more than 35%.
d.By 2030, the number of registered vehicles in Hebei should be capped at 20.53 million, and the public transportation ratio in urban areas should be over 36%. Additionally, the energy-saving cars should account for more than 50%, and electric automobile more than 35%.
The Report stresses that due to larges effects of regional energy structures, industrial structures and transportation conditions have on air quality, all sectors need to be aligned in order for air quality targets to be met. Setting 2030 as the timing to reach national targets, the report also points out that if the specific abovementioned measures are successfully implemented ahead of time, Jing-Jin-Ji may be able to reach their air quality targets prior to 2030.
To implement these measures, funding will always play a significant factor. The Report also addresses these areas along with monitoring and enforcement challenges. Tonny Xie, director of the Secretariat of the Clean Air Alliance of China, analyzed that “Cleaning up our industrial structure and shifting to a service economy are essential components to meeting national air quality targets. Additionally, environmental protection policy and implementation, and corporate decisions to protect the environment will create a larger market for this field. This is also what we hope to emulate from Western countries.